I have had some success with this problem. I had the problem with a Chuwi Hi 10 Pro where it would charge in Android but not in Windows. If I charge in Android and reboot to Windows then it continued to charge. If I just tried charging in Windows the screen would pulse brighter and darker.
Unrelated to fixing the charging problem, I tried to connect Android to my laptop over ADB to update Android and my desktop PC wouldn't recognize the tablet. No device at all in device manager. A bit of searching and it was suggested that it's a USB 3 problem. I ordered a USB-C cable that said it was only USB 2.0 compatible. That fixed the adb problem and now my desktop can see the android tablet
However out of curiosity I rebooted the tablet into Windows and plugged the new cable into a wall charger and now it looks like the new cable has fixed the windows charging problem.
Use a usb-c cable for usb 2.0 (the usb c for 3.0 does not work properly) I recommend the blitzwof cables (just cut the plastic and metal base around the plug slightly to fit all in the chuwi because the usb- C of the chuwi is slightly deeper than normal)